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Pediatrics is one of the most challenging specialties in medical science. The major challenge is that the patient in most cases is unable to express the discomfort. Moreover, the drug dosing is much different compared to other age groups. Clinician’s decision and assessment of clinical symptoms becomes the major deciding factor in diagnosis of disease and disorder. Another important challenge for the pediatric healthcare community is Medicaid funding. The cost of health care for most children is apparently low but for those who require hospitalization and specialty care the picture might be contrary. Medicaid funding for children is estimated about 20 percent of total funds, yet children occupy up about 60% of enrollees.

Pediatric Critical Care is majorly concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions which essentially requires organ support and continuous invasive monitoring. Critical care treatment also includes psychological health; pressure points; mobilization, physiotherapy and secondary infections. Critical care is by large provided to children who can potentially be cured with a positive chance of surviving with intensive care support. Convenient diagnosis and immediate initiation of treatment are required to counteract unnecessary increase in patient morbidity and mortality.

Adolescent medicine otherwise known as hebiatrics is chiefly concerned with the care of patients in adolescent period of development. The branch of adolescent medicine tends to the almost overall necessities of the entire individual from an assortment of mental; sociological and physiological perspective. Issues of medical ethics are particularly related to confidentiality and the privileges to consent for therapeutic care are pertinent to the practice of adolescent medicine.

Pediatric endocrinology deals with disorders of the endocrine glands. Juvenile Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common disorder that accounts for 50% of a typical clinical practice and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased in children and adolescents and is directly linked to the rise in childhood obesity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its comorbidities are major  risk factors for aggravating vascular diseases. Growth disorders are another most common problem seen in pediatrics patients due to hormonal dis-balance- ADHD, GH etc

Pediatric pulmonology is a medical specialty that mainly treats diseased conditions of the lungs and abnormalities in respiratory tract in infants, children, and adolescents. Pulmonary function testing is a non-invasive test done through different techniques to work best for children of various ages with known or suspected respiratory disease. Neonatal asthma results from complex interactions between multiple environmental and genetic influences. Numerous risk factors include airway hyperactivity, atopy, allergens, infections, and obesity can be fatal for the pediatric community if not treated at the earliest occurrence of symptoms.

Gastroenterology problems, hepatic disorders and nourishment related disorders are quickly developing and engage diverse disciplines. This field is so far reaching and has remarkable highlights of critical patterns, as opposed to barely concentrating on particular advances. Some cases of treatment outcome advancements have produced the most astounding results. Pediatric gastroenterology is an ever changing branch of medical science and is closely reviewed on various verticals including the intestinal microbiome, biomedical genomics, the science of unique gastrointestinal cell types, and microRNAs. Cellular, genetics and molecular advances hold the promise of new insights, preventives and therapeutics for child gastrointestinal illness.

Pediatric hematology is an unique branch concentrating in the analysis of hematopoietic cells diseases, malignant and benign haematological diseases of childhood. It also encompasses the immune-phenotypic, morphologic, molecular genetics and cytogenetic characteristics of nearly all pediatric-specific hematologic disorders. Accurate diagnoses through evaluation of bone marrow, peripheral blood and lymph nodes of children are quite comples but have yielded authentic results. It is mostly useful tool in the practice of hematopathologists, pediatric pathologists, medical students and pediatric oncologist in the field.

One of the most funded area of research- pediatric oncology has gained immense importance in medical science with the rise of occurrences in incidents of cancer of different types of neonatal cancers. New advanced technology and techniques for cancer diagnosis have been responsible for the promising treatment outcomes. Majorly it is managed with the expanding the role of radiation treatment in the treatment of infants. Proton treatment is a recent advancement in the field of radiation oncology. Proton treatment promises to propel the part of radiation treatment in the therapy of adolescents since its essential advantage is a decrease in dose to normal tissues, an objective of child treatment and clinical trials.

This information is very useful for evaluation of cancer in children and during this event we hope to have a detailed panel discussion on the pediatric cancer.

Recent advancements from researchers have helped the medical fraternity to utilize the tools of molecular hereditary to dissect the systems of heart embryogenesis and to arrive at the exact reasons for cardiovascular distortion. Targeted research is concentrated upon to realize potential achievements in territories like long term monitoring innovations, hereditary and epigenetic screening, life-course experiments, biomarkers, cardio defensive systems, confirmation based practice guidelines for more rapid and improvement of medications in children.

Adolescence overweight and obesity has reached scourge extents and seem to be major public health issue globally.  Obesity has proven to be connected with various antagonistic impacts. It brings along an assortment of wellbeing inconveniences which can include hypertension, dyslipidaemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, metabolic disorder, type 2 diabetes, rest issue, and non-alcoholic greasy liver sickness. The lists of invited disorders linked with obesity are mental impacts like demonization, segregation, discouragement and passionate injury. Obesity in pediatric also seen to substantially increase the risk of obese adulthood.

Cardiothoracic surgery is the area of medical science concerned in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax – the heart and lungs in children. A cardiothoracic specialist is a therapeutic doctor who practices in various postoperative techniques relating to the heart and lungs. Latest advances in the trans-catheter methods of treatment have added another dimension to the supervision of neonates, babies and children with coronary disease. They are owned to be ought to now be accessible to the pediatricians and pediatric cardiologist in the administration of coronary difficulties in the pediatric patient.

It is the division of medicine deals with the nails, hair and skin related diseases. There has been numerous new advancements in therapeutic modalities for the precise and focused treatment of pediatric dermatological disorders. Newer advances in the treatment of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and juvenile hemangiomas are also available with the greater advent of biosimilars. However, access to biosimilars is over a decade in Europe compared to few years in USA.

Pediatric ophthalmology studies have mostly been centered around analysis and treatment of ocular diseases, visual development and vision distress in children. Pediatric ophthalmology has been lately gaining importance with the prevalence of children developing vision disorders, myopia and other ophthalmic disorders and disease conditions.

Pediatric urogynecology is more of a surgical sub-speciality of medication that deals in the diseases of urogenital system in infants and children. Pediatric urogynecologists specialized in the subject will attend the pediatrics conference for discussing the clinical conundrums in children.  Diseases of urination, reproductive organs, testes are few of the most common problems in infant. Other common issues include bedwetting, hypospadias, bladder and kidney stones, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, tumors, cancers of the kidneys, genitourinary malformations, and repair of genitourinary trauma, birth defects, prune belly syndrome, bladder exstrophy, cloaca exstrophy, intersex conditions and ambiguous genitalia.

The rise of medical genetics as a specialty and its fast paced development in divisions of pediatrics was fortified by research innovations and advances, like the capacity to envision human chromosomes, improvement of strategies to concentrate biochemical varieties in blood, cell culture, somatic cell hybridization, and sub-molecular innovation. Numerous pediatricians are growing interests in medical genetics and undergoing programs in restorative medical genetics. The blast of information concerning the metabolic and atomic reasons for genetic diseases and comprehension of their pathogenesis has prompted to an assortment of particular symptomatic, preventive, and restorative methodologies for alleviating the side effects or symptoms the complexities of many of these diseases.

Pediatric Nursing is one of the toughest as well as greatest assets in the medical field as Nurses hold a major role in health and development of children starting from the moment of child birth. It is often said as the scientific art of child care. Pediatric Nursing is classified into different fields based on their role of work and responsibilities. Neonatal Nursing is the division of health care which by large concentrate upon providing care and support to newborn infants suffering from health ailments like birth defects, infections, or heart deformities or born prematurely. Pediatric emergency nurses are trained in such a way that they act immediately and handle emergencies promptly even in stressful life-threatening situations. Palliative paediatric nursing involves fostering of maximal growth and development develops realistic, functional and coordinated home care plans for the children and families.

Pediatric Surgery is the department that involves the surgery of Neonatal, infants, children, adolescents, foetuses and teenagers. Pediatric surgery is classified into sub categories like pediatric surgical oncology, pediatric cardiothoracic surgery, pediatric neurosurgery, pediatric urological surgery, pediatric hepatological surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery, pediatric cardiothoracic surgery, pediatric vascular surgery and pediatric oncological surgery. It is regarded as one of the most difficult practicing specialties among the medical fraternity.

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