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Stem cells are those cells that have the ability to continuously divide, differentiate or develop into various kinds of cells or tissues. It is found in all multicellular organisms as blank or unspecialized and undifferentiated cell. It has immune potential and can help treat a wide range of medical problems. The discovery of stem cells lead to a whole new branch of medicine known as Regenerative Medicine. Stem cells are Totipotent, Pluripotent, Multipotent, oligopotent, and, unipotent.


Nanobiotechnology will be the future with nanoscience developing nanomaterials and devices. This will lead to further convergence of technology with wide application. Nanotechnology is simply the rearranging and processing of atom and molecules to fabricate materials of nano specifications, like nanometer. The size of nano is 1 to 100nm.


Agriculture Biotechnology is the collection of scientific techniques used to improve plants, animals, and microorganisms. Based on an understanding of DNA, a solution is created in order to increase agriculture productivity. It also enhances breeders ability to make improvements in crop and livestock, enables improvements that are not possible with the traditional crossing of related species alone. Agriculture Biotechnology has been practiced for a long time. For about 10,000 years, farmers have been improving wild plants and animals through the selection and breeding of desirable characteristics.


Microbial Biotechnology deals with the prevention of deterioration of processed or manufactured goods, environmental protection, and waste disposal system. The production of antibiotics, organic acids, and enzymes by fermentation of natural microbes, laboratory selected mutants or microbes genetically engineered using recombinant DNA methods.


Aquaculture and marine biotechnology deals with the farming of fish and other aquatic animals and plants in the freshwater environment. The breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals in all types of water environments, including ponds, rivers, lakes and the ocean. Aquaculture helps us learn more about fish and seafood, and in the future help us to rebuild some of our wild fish stocks. Marine biotechnology is defined as any technique that uses living marine organisms to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.


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