Pharmacophore Modeling, Atom-Based 3D-QSAR, Docking Studies and In-silico ADME prediction of propionic acid derivatives as FFA1 agonists.
Abstract: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and confines (mainly risk of hypoglycemia) allied with clinically used oral antidiabetic agents emphasized the need to explore new molecular targets to develop safer and effective antihyperglycemic agents. The free fatty acid receptor 1(FFA1) (previously known as GRP40) has attracted considerable attention as a new potential target for management of T2DM in last decade. Activation of FFA1 amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but does not affect insulin secretion at low glucose levels, therefore it seems a logical mechanism to boost insulin levels without the risk of hypoglycemia. Pharmacophore modeling, atom-based 3D-QSAR and docking studies have been performed on a series of 81 propionic acid derivatives in an attempt to understand the structural features required for molecules to act as FFA1 agonist. A five point pharmacophore hypothesis having two hydrophobic (H), one negative ionic (N), and two aromatic rings (R) with discrete spatial arrangements as pharmacophoric features were developed using PHASE module of Schrodinger suit. HHNRR.375 was considered as best hypothesis and its robustness was validated by the good correlation coefficient value (r2= 0.907), cross-validated correlation coefficient (q2 = 0.694), Pearson-R value (0.839), and F value (186). The molecular docking studies further complimented the results of developed model. The present study identified some vital structural features of propionic acid derivatives that can be used to design potent agonists of FFA1.
Evaluation of gold nanoparticles and EDTA as antibacterial enhancers for Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract and some antibiotics.
Abstract: The present study was carried out to examine the enhancement of the antibacterial activities of gold nanoparticles (NPs) and EDTA when combined with Cephalexin and Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract against bacterial strains: Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). Surprisingly, under the conditions of present study, the gold nanoparticles (NPs) (50 μL) alone, were ineffective as antibacterial substance. However, it enhanced the effect of cephalexin (30 mcg/disc) against S. typhi (ATCC 14028), E.coli (ATCC 9027), and S. aureus (ATCC 6538) but had no effect against P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) in agar disc diffusion method. When 10 mM EDTA was added to cephalexin (30 mcg/disc), its antibacterial activity was enhanced two times as much as that of gold nanoparticles (NPs) against E.coli (ATCC 9027). Examination of the inhibition activity of 10mM EDTA alone, and/or in combination with a mixture of gold nanoparticles (NPs) and methanolic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, showed apparent antibacterial activity against S. aureus (ATCC 6538) and P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). Interestingly, increasing the volumes of gold nanoparticles (NPs) from 25 to 150 μL added to the bacterial cultures in a microtitre plate showed high antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of gold nanoparticles (NPs) and/or EDTA and/or Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract were measured against all bacterial strains using micro broth dilution method.
Pharmacist Education on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and its Pregnancy Outcomes.
Abstract: Knowledge about GDM among antenatal women may help in adoption of a healthy lifestyle, better self-care, leading to early diagnosis of the disease and reduce the morbidity and mortality by prevention of maternal and foetal complications. This study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge about GDM among antenatal women. This cross-sectional study was undertaken A total of 500 registered pregnant women diagnosed to have GDM residing with in 5 Kms of study area aged more than 18 years who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled. The participants were provided with the questionnaire which was designed to assess the knowledge regarding the gestational diabetes mellitus.The mean BMI levels were 28.07±4.11 Kg/m2 The mean blood sugar levels at diagnosis ranged between 88 to 300 mg/dL the mean blood sugar levels were 201.36 ±38.67 mg/dL and median blood sugar levels were 190 mg/dL. Majority of the women that is, 57.6% of the women had average knowledge about the GDM while 21.8% of the women had good knowledge, 1.6% had excellent and 19% had poor knowledge about GDM. The mean percentage of the knowledge was 36.14±18.94 percent. Statistically significant association was noted between knowledge about GDM with age and educational status (p<0.050). Gestational diabetes mellitus information was superficial among pregnant women’s, therefore; there is the planning of innovation for promotion of good health of pregnant women and its outcomes.
Budesonide Loaded PLGA and pH-Sensitive PLGA Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic and idiopathic disease of the gut. The available therapeutic options for the treatment of IBD are not promising because of severe side effects of the medications and lack of resident time in the gut due to diarrhea, a major symptom of IDB. Therefore, a carrier system is required that could deliver the drug specifically to the target site. In this context, nanoparticulate based drug delivery in the treatment of IBD had shown a promising approach for the delivery of various therapeutics agents that reduces the dosing frequency and possible adverse effects. In-order to achieve such a carrier system, budesonide loaded PLGA and pH-Sensitive PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by slight modification of the oil in water (O/W) emulsion evaporation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized for their size, shape, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. The therapeutic efficacy of both PLGA and pH-sensitive PLGA nanoparticles were assessed in different acute and chronic colitis mouse models. From the obtained data, it was found that delivery by coated PLGA nanoparticles alleviated the induced colitis significantly better than by plain PLGA particles, which was already more effective than treatment with the same dose of the free drug. These data further corroborate the potential of polymeric nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, and that this concept can still be further improved regarding the oral route of administration by implementing pH-dependent drug release characteristics.
Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of locally delivered Meswak irrigation and 0.2% CHX irrigation in management Chronic periodontitis patients – A Clinical & Microbiological Study
Abstract: Ayurvedic medicines like turmeric possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-microbial properties. This study was carried out using the purest form of turmeric and meswak to test their anti-plaque and anti-inflammatory properties in the form of a sub gingival irrigation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of meswak solution and compare it with conventional irrigant i.e., 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate and a positive control (saline) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Method Study group consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, aged between 21-45 years. 90 sites with pocket depth >5mm were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A: Test group received Meswak (HIORA) irrigation along with scaling and root planing. Group B: Test group received scaling and root planing along with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Group c: Control group received Saline along with Scaling and root planning. Clinical parameters Plaque index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth and relative attachment level were elevated for each patient at baseline, 7th, 14th, 21 days and 1 months. Plaque samples were taken at baseline, 21 days and 1 month interval and total colony count was done. Results All the groups showed significant improvement in all clinical parameters from baseline to 1 month. There was statistically significant improvement in gingival index, PPD in Group A as compared to other groups. The percentage reduction in microbial load at the 1 month was highest in chlorhexidine group. Conclusion CHX and Herbal agents showed similar clinical efficacy but CHX irrigation was more effective in reducing bacterial counts.
POTENT ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OFBARK EXTRACT OF FICUS CUNIA
Abstract: Ficus Cunia also said to be the Indian fig tree,synonym ficus semicordata; Vern-‘Khaina’,Hindi-‘Jharphali’,Sanskrit-‘Kharpatra’,is an evergreen deciduous tree upto
12m height,bark dark grey.In the present study bark extract of plant was prepared
using methanol as a solvent.The radical-scavenging capacity of Methanolic extract of
Ficus cunia was determined using the DPPH radical method.2ml of test solutions was
added to 2ml of 2 x 10-4mol L-1 ethanolic DPPH solution.The mixture was shaken
vigorously and the absorbance was measured at 517nm immediately.The decrease in
absorbance was determined at 15,30 and 60min.until the absorbance reached a
steady state(after60min).All the tests were performed in triplicate and mean values
calculated.The anti oxidant activity was expressed according to the ability of an extract
to scavenge DPPH free radicals and wasdetermined using the following equation:
%Inhibition = [1-(A1-A2)/A0]x100
The extract is found to be effective in reducing the stable free radical DPPH to the
yellow-coloured diphenylpicrylhydrazine indicating that the extract is active in DPPH free
radical scavenging.With increasing the concentration of methanolic extract,inhibition
also increases Extract at the concentration of 80μg/ml demonstrated 93.52% inhibition
of the DPPH free radicals.
Finasteride Loaded Solid-SNEDDS (Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System) for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability
Abstract: The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug, finasteride by combining the advantages of both self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) and tablets. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using selected surfactant (Cremophore RH 40), oil (Capryol 90) and co-surfactant (PEG 400) and self nanoemulsifying region was identified. Selected liquid SNEDDS formulations were subjected to particle size analysis, saturated solubility studies, self-emulsification time determination, percentage transmittance and centrifugation tests, determination of the effect of pH and Robustness to dilution and cloud point measurement. Optimized liquid formulation was then subjected to a novel test “determination of dispersion’s nature and differentiation between microemulsions and nanoemulsions”. Liquid SNEDDS formulation was solidified through simple adsorption technique using Avicel and Aerosil- 200 as adsorbents, separately and then characterized for powder flow properties. Tablets were prepared from Aerosil-200 liqui-solid powder and then characterized. Further investigation was done (XRD, FTIR, SEM and in-vitro dispersion studies). Droplet size was less than 180 nm. The dispersion produced by dilution of optimized SNEDDS was confirmed to be a nanoemulsion and not a microemulsion. SEM analysis of S-SNEDDS and regenerated liquid nanoemulsion showed successful adsorption of L-SNEDDS onto the surface of porous carrier and presence of nano size spherical droplets, respectively. FTIR and XRD results showed that drug in final formulation was intact and was converted to amorphous form in the final formulation. S-SNEDDS and L-SNEDDS showed 93% and 98% in-vitro dispersion of finasteride respectively as compared to 72% drug release from the commercial tablets. In-vivo study showed 87 % and 88 % bioavailability of finasteride from S-SNEDDS and L-SNEDDS respectively, as compared to 62% from commercial tablets. It could be concluded that Solid SNEDDS is a promising approach for improving the bioavailability of finasteride.
Probing PARP1-inhibitor complexes for the development of novel inhibitors.
Abstract: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is the most important member of the PARP family which has been shown to have a direct involvement in the development of cancer. A strategy to rationalize the structure based drug discovery of PARP1 inhibitors has been discussed. So far studies regarding varied scaffold PARP1 inhibitors have been done, however the current study focus on how the available data from potent PARP1 inhibitors could be combined and utilized for developing a robust model for the development of novel inhibitors. Through detailed analyses of PARP1-inhibitor binding, a pharmacophore model has been developed followed by a virtual screen of potential inhibitors. The resulting high-affinity binding hits following the defined pharmacophore model and making the critical interactions were selected as final potential leads. Hence, using the approaches of pharmacophore design, docking based virtual screening and conformation alignment, we have identified important leads which satisfy all parameters of the screening process. The developed pharmacophore model as well as the strategy is very straightforward for screening novel inhibitors and could thus be used as a prototype for PARP1 structure based drug discovery.
Heterotrimeric complex of p38 MAPK, PKCδ, and TIRAP is required for AP1 mediated inflammatory response.
Abstract: Inflammation could be described as a physiological response of the body to tissue injury, pathogen invasion, and irritants. During the inflammatory phase, cells of both the innate as well as adaptive immune system are activated and recruited to the site of inflammation. These mediators are downstream targets for the transcription factors; activator protein-1 (AP1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer (NF-κB), signal transducers and activators of transcription factors (STAT1), as well as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which control the expression of most immunomodulatory genes. There is a significant increase in active p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAK) immediately after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, which results in the activation of AP-1 transcription factor and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and IL-23. We studied the novel mechanism of p38 MAPK activation through the formation of a heterotrimeric complex of Protein kinase C delta type (PKCδ), Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain Containing Adaptor Protein (TIRAP), and p38 proteins. TIRAP serves as an adaptor molecule which brings PKCδ and p38 in close proximity. The complex facilitates the activation of p38MAPK by PKCδ. Therefore, we propose that disruption of the heterotrimeric complex may be a good strategy to dampen the inflammatory response. Structure-based design of small molecules or peptides targetting PKCδ-TIRAP or TIRAP-p38 interfaces would be beneficial for therapy in AP1 mediated inflammatory diseases
"Engineering at the Nanoscale: A Strategy for Developing High Performance Functional Nanocomposites for biomedical applications."
Abstract: Due to the enormous applications, bio-polymeric systems are widely used in drug delivery, coatings, food products, biological materials etc. Recent progress in nanotechnology as well as the active research at the interface of polymer chemistry and biomedicine have opened novel opportunities to use nano-sized polymeric systems in bioengineering, molecular biology and therapeutics. The ability to design polymers with controlled degradation profile, mechanical and processing properties has opened opportunities for the development of modern polymer based drug delivery devices such as biodegradable nanoparticles. With the advancement of time, polymeric biomaterials were developed which can act as smart skin substitutes by performing many of the functions of the natural skin. Nanotechnology has played significant role in the advancement of skin substitutes. Electrospun membranes have characteristics that make them suitable as wound dressings such as variable pore size, high surface to volume ratio etc. The ability to incorporate a variety of biologically active compounds into the electrospun matrices makes them a reliable candidate for wound dressings. However, the assessment of the importance of nanotechnology in improving the performance of bio-polymeric systems as well as that of the potentials of new biopolymers in nanotechnology applications are to be supported by appropriate research that nowadays is only just at the outset.
Development and characterization of levosulpiride-loaded liquid suppositories with improved bioavailability and patient compliance.
Abstract:The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize levosulpiride loaded liquid suppository with improved dissolution and bioavailability. The levosulpiride-loaded liquid suppositories were prepared by cold method. The composition of levosulpiride-loaded liquid suppositories were optimized in a series of experiments using various weight ratios of P188, P407, Tween 80 and drug. Thee suppositories were liquid at room temperature, however, when rectally administered, they became gel at body temperature. Their rheological properties and release characteristics were determined in vitro while pharmacokinetic study was performed after its rectal administration to rats and compared with the drug powder. Poloxamer 188 and Twee 80 decreased the gelation temperature and gelation time, but increased the gel strength and mucoadhesive force of drug-loaded liquid suppositories. Thus, the liquid suppository composed of [Levosulpiride/P 188/P 407/Tween 80 (1/15/17/3 %)] with a gelation temperature of about 30.7 °C remained liquid at 25 °C, but converted to gel at 30-36.5 oC, resulting in easy administration and rapid gelation inside the body. This liquid suppository gave a considerably increased dissolution rate of drug as compared to the drug suspension. Beside this, a meaningfully higher plasma concentration and 7.1-fold AUC values were exhibited by this liquid suppository in association to the drug suspension. Hence, this liquid suppository could alternatively be used for the enhanced bioavailability of levosulpiride-loaded pharmaceutical products.
EXTENT AND PATTERN OF SELF MEDICATION USE AMONG ADULT RESIDENTS OF A JURISDICTION IN NORTH INDIA
Abstract: Introduction: Self Medication (SM), a form of self care, is a topic of growing interest among researchers and a matter of concern for policy makers and implementors, owing to a plethora of associated malpractices in general population. There is paucity of information about this menace, especially in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence, pattern and determinants of self medication among adult residents of a district in North India. Methods: This community based cross sectional mixed method study was carried out in of a district S.A.S, Nagar, Mohali, Punjab, India. Multistage stratified random sampling technique and Probability proportional to size (PPS) was used in the 400 households from urban, rural and slum areas. A pretested questionnaire was administered to one representative member of each of the 400 households. Besides 150 people visiting medical stores were interviewed for self medication practices. Results: SM was widely practiced (97%) in study population, more in urban as compared to rural and slum counterparts. People of all socio demographic categories practiced self-medication but were most frequently observed in age group of 31-40 years, females and urban residents. Monetary constraint was cited as the main reason for SM. Allopathy was the preferred medicinal system and the local pharmacist being the main information source for SM. Easy availability, multiple drug options and lack of prescription requirement emerged as the major factor responsible for irrational drug use under SM. Conclusion: SM was widely practiced in study population. Thus, there is an urgent need to curb this practice by legislation and educational means.
Design and docking investigations of tryptophan based pseudo-peptide molecule in Leptospirosis treatment
Abstract: It is well known that peptides are the most potent bioactive naturally occurring molecules. But this inherent biological properties of peptides cannot be utilized to the fullest due to their early degradation properties seen in vivo, hence to overcome this stability issue without loss of biological activity, pseudo-peptide was designed and synthesized in a way that they retain their stability in vivo maintaining high biological viability. In the present study effort was made to unravel the potential undeciphered properties of pseudo-peptide with main focus on potential treatment of Leptospirosis, a deadly disease with very limited treatment options and related disorders which are highly lethal, by using preliminary pharmacological assays viz., MDT, TDT and hemolytic assay. In particular, all the analysis led to the conclusion that the synthesized compound not only inhibited Leptospira, the causative organism of Leptospirosis but also the life threatening disorders such as hemolysis, caused due to Leptospiral infection.
Signal Generation for SGLT2 Inhibitors using US FDA Generation Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)
Abstract: Introduction: Regulatory agencies have concluded that sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lead to many adverse drug reactions (ADRs) like ketoacidosis, but published literature remains controversial. We performed data mining with U.S. FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database for the three newly approved anti-diabetic drugs: canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin of SGLT-2 inhibitor class to generate new signals. Materials & Methods: We searched FAERS for ADR reports in patients treated with canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin (upto june 30, 2016) and compared the number of SGLT2 inhibitor-related reports to reports in patients treated with most commonly used DPP4 inhibitors: sitagliptin and saxagliptin. We estimated relative risks by relating the number of reports to cumulative drug sales (a surrogate for patient exposure). Results: FAERS contained 20,473 reports for canagliflozin 5,708 for dapagliflozin and 1,898 for empagliflozin representing 0.05%, 0.0156% and 0.005% of all co-occurrences in the database, respectively. Signal scores indicated significant association of all three study drugs with ketoacidosis, reproductive premalignant disorders and hyperglycaemia/new onset diabetes mellitus. Summary: Our results support the FDA's warning that SGLT2 inhibitors lead to ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia as evidenced by an increased reporting rate above that in a comparator population treated with DPP4 inhibitors. We also identified new signal for reproductive premalignant disorders which need further validation.
Intelligent multifunctional Nanoparticles; Synthesize, Characterization and Applications – A review.
Abstract: The nanotechnology has concentrated to study by researchers around the world to synthesize
novelty nanoparticles which will be used in wide range of applications from industry to
medicine. In the recent years, one of the most common nanomaterial in the world is
nanoparticles. In addition, Multifunctional nanoparticles has been growing by scientists
around the world. The various metallic, ceramic and polymeric compounds like Iron Oxides,
Zinc Oxides, Iron-Cobalt, Nickel- Cobalt, Titanium Dioxide, Ag doped gold, Copper alloys,
PEG, PPA, PMMA, Chitosan, Hydroxyapatite and sort of that, will be produced by chemists,
physicians or materialist in the laboratory. There are various method to synthesize the
nanoparticles like precipitation, chemical and physical vapor deposition, thermal and
plasma spray, laser deposition, mechanical alloying and so on. Because of an impressive and
unique chemical, physical and an antimicrobial properties of nanoparticles along with their
biocompatibility; makes these materials find specific applications in various industries.
Thus, nanoparticles have lots of applications in manufacturing, agriculture, environment,
energy, electronics, and medicine. These use as an industrial coatings, lubricant oils,
catalysts, gas sensors, magnetic separators, antioxidant, break down oil, breakdown volatile
organic air pollutants, fuel cell electrodes, storage materials, lithium ion batteries,
semiconductor (photovoltaic cells), solar steam device, storing and packaging of agricultural
produces, nutrients absorber, food flavoring, perfumes, scratch resistance eyeglasses,
fluorescent biological labels, contrast imaging, bone growth, drug and gene delivery,
immunoassay, bio detection of pathogens, separation and purification of biological
molecules and cells, cancer diagnosis and treatment, tumors destruction via heat therapy
(hyperthermia), tissue engineering and etc. So, propose of this paper is detecting the
intelligent multifunctional materials and evaluating wonderful characteristics which is be
synthesized by various methods.
Nutraceuticals – A niche for Global Market
Abstract: Over the years nutraceuticals have attracted considerable interest due to their potential nutritional, safety and therapeutic effects. They possess a role in a plethora of biological processes, including antioxidant defenses, cell proliferation, gene expression, and safeguarding the regulation of cellular energy and apoptosis. They are considered to be healthy sources for prevention of life threatening diseases such as diabetes, renal and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as different infections. In global marketplace nutraceuticals and functional foods have become a multi-billion dollar industry and estimates within Canada suggest that the Indian nutraceutical and functional food industry has potential to grow to $30 billion US. Currently we focused nutraceuticals from an Indian perspective to identify the potential for distinctive niche markets and growth of Indian industry and it's potential in international markets. The limitations to growth in this area are due to paucity in proper labelling and assessment in the health effects by nutraceuticals. Deprived data in Food safety, quality (FSSAI) and a an understanding of interactions among foods, medicines and dietary supplements are central requirements in India for development of less restricted access to our national markets and expansion into the international. Exploitation of genetic and ecotype variability associated with natural populations of nutraceutical and functional foods, has potential to develop niche markets distinctive to India and global regions. Selection for consistent production of high and low productivity of active plant components within specific ecological regions will allow development of alternative nutraceuticals and functional foods with potent health benefits. These commodities have potential to stabilize economic return to local producers without having to compete with generic products being marketed. Development of better characterized and research proven products will help enhance consumer confidence in nutraceutical in India and in the globe.
Intellectual Property Rights(IPR)- Technical Know-How in India
Abstract: In the present scenario Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) play a vital role in Pharmaceutical domain, Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) or Patents are the exclusive rights given to a person for an invention in any branch of technology whether products or processes which is patentable if they meet the Criteria of being NOVEL, involving an INVENTIVE STEP and being capable of INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. The laws which govern the intellectual property in India are well established at all levels- statutory, administrative and judicial. India is in agreement with World Trade Organisation (WTO) and also member of various treaties like Paris convention, PCT, Budapest Treaty. India is also part of Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) which came into force from 1st January 1995 which governs with minimum standards for protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights in member countries sufficiently required to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights.
The IPR are segregated into 5 different types of following areas:-
Looking at the latest amendment 2016, in Indian Patent act it is more focussed in Timelines in terms of Grant of Patent to inventor in a judicial manner
Reduction in time period for filing response to FER, Remote Hearing, Claim deletion at National Phase Entry, No extension of 31 months for NP entry, New Rules categorically deny any possibility of condonation of delay for NP entry beyond 31 months, Sequence Listing Maximum Official fees fixed, Refund of Examination Fee, Expedited Examination , Regular Examination, Pre-Grant Opposition rules ,
Foreign Filing License request to be disposed of within 21 days, and some procedural changes such as
Power of Attorney in 3 months ,Reference to deposition of Biological Material to be made within 3 months from the date of filing of the application, Electronic Submission mandatory for Agents, and new favours in case of New Entity: “Startup”
Survey on awareness, perception and extent of usage of nutraceuticals and dietary supplement in local region of Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract: In recent years there has been growing interest in nutraceuticals which provides health benefits and is providing preventive options for the ageing population worldwide for keeping them away from various lifestyle diseases. Along with the growing healthcare industry in India there is an emerging trend in growing consumerism for ‘Fast Moving Healthcare Goods (FMHG)’; worldwide known as Nutraceuticals, which are by definition, ingredients with human health benefits beyond basic nutrition. According to available estimates, nutraceuticals market in 2007 was INR 18.75 billion and expected to grow at 20% CAGR to achieve a market size of INR 27 billion in 2009. Global nutraceuticals market is estimated at USD 120 billion in 2007 growing at 7% (CAGR). The US has been the major market for nutraceuticals with India and China becoming fastest growing markets. Indian nutraceuticals market in 2008 was USD 1.0 billion and globally this market is expected to reach USD 180 billion in 2013 growing at a CAGR of 7% driven by the fastest growing dietary supplement category. Nutraceuticals are gaining acceptance globally for their ability to address several diseases. Vitamins, Minerals and Nutrients constitute about 85% of the global market while antioxidants and anti-agents account for 10% other segments such as herbal extracts occupy 5% of the market. To actualize the growth rate and the demand of nutraceuticals in the local region of Uttar Pradesh like Ghaziabad, Noida and Greater Noida. The present survey study has been conducted and the survey data was portrait and presented in the pictorial & graphical manner for better understanding.
Validation of traditional claims of Indian Evolvulus species through in-vitro antiradical activities and estimation of neuroprotective hydroxycinnamic acids using HPTLC
Abstract: Free radicals generation is the major cause of neurodegenerative disorders and phyto-phenolic regularly being checked for Neuroprotection. There are two Evolvulus species viz. E. alsinoides L. (EA) and E. nummularius L. (EN) of the family Convolvulaceae, found in India and traditionally being used as nerve tonic. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate antioxidant potential by several in vitro methods viz. DPPH radical, β carotene bleaching, hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical scavenging, Anti-lipid peroxidation, NO scavenging on human macrophage cell J774A., Intracellular ROS generation, cell viability assay and to estimate total phenolic content and two hydroxycinnamic acids viz. caffeic and ferulic acid in aforesaid Evolvulus species. The results showed more phenolic content (968.527 and 342.465 mg), caffeic (415.59 and 185.56mg/100g) and ferulic acid (286.5 and 235.3mg/100g) in EN than EA respectively. Both the Evolvulus species have significant antioxidant potential, with IC50 for DPPH (86.75 and 49.46μg/ml), β carotene bleaching (550.09 and 307.41 μg/ml) for EA and EN respectively, which showed better antioxidant potential of EN. However, other in vitro and cell line assays gave varied results for EA and EN extract. The cell viability assay showed ethanolic extract of EN was safer at higher concentration. Hence, it is concluded that EN and EA may be explored for the treatment of several different neurological disorders.
STUDY ON AEFI (ADVERSE EV ENT FOLLOWING IMMUNIZATION) IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PAEDIATRICS, GAUHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL, GUWAHATI (ASSAM)
Abstract: Background: Immunization programme is an important determinant of the health status in a region. Full awareness regarding usefulness and safety of vaccines are required. Proper evaluation of vaccine related adverse events are essential. Objective of study was to analyze pattern of Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) in children below 12 years of age.
Methods: Observational prospective study was carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, Gauhati Medical College & Hospital, Guwahati, where children receiving routine immunization were analyzed & followed up through telephonic survey of parents. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) form was used to record AEFI.
Results: Total 1378 children received total of 3361 vaccine dose s. 17.7% AEFI were reported. Most common AEFI per 1000 doses of all vaccinations was Fever. DPT vaccine was most common vaccine associated with AEFI.
Conclusions: Strengthening of AEFI reporting and assessment is essential for improving immunization coverage.
TREATMENT OF GOUT FROM NUTRITIONAL VALUES & DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTED COMPOUNDS.
Abstract: Gout was treated by bottle gourd and ficus Palmata specie. 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, model, bottle gourd treated and Ficus Palmata treated. Gout is induced by direct oral dose of uric acid as 30mg/kg body weight. Bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata extracts were prepared in ethanol separately and given to rats as 80mg/kg body weight. After 6 weeks of treatment behavioral activities were monitored by locomotor activity in open field, stimulatory activity in home cage, anxiolytic effects in light and dark apparatus, recognition memory in novel object apparatus. After decapitation, biochemical tests were determined by calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and serum uric acid. Locomotor and stimulator activities significantly increases in bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata treated group, anxiety decreases while, recognition memory of both groups significantly increases as compare to model but decreases as compare to control. Bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata specie treated rats showed good effects to enhance magnesium level in blood, significantly reduces the serum uric acid level and maintained calcium phosphorus balance in blood. Behavioral and biochemical variables were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Thus, the aim of study is to prevent to cause and cure hyperuricemia and gout and increases the medicinal value of bottle gourd and Ficus Palmata specie extract by determining their active part.
DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN OF FIXED DOSE COMBINATIONS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE IN A TERTIARY MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN ASSAM
Abstract: Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the drug utilization pattern of fixed dose combination (FDCs) and to evaluate the rationality of FDCs prescriptions in the Department of Medicine in a tertiary medical college in Assam.
Methods and Materials: This is a prescription based non comparative, observational prospective study. A total of 600 prescriptions of patients were analyzed for over a period of 6 months. The rational use of FDCs was evaluated by analyzing the drug prescriptions. Data was analyzed by descriptive studies.
Results: Amongst the total 600 prescriptions evaluated, FDCs were prescribed in 524 (87.3%) prescriptions (1.8 per prescription).FDCs were most commonly prescribed between 31 to 40 years (26.33%) and mostly in male patients (54.58%).The most common route of administration of FDCs was oral route (54.45%). FDCs were most commonly prescribed for respiratory and gastro-intestinal system ailments. Out of the 944 FDCs only 23.41% FDCs were included in WHO Essential Medicines Lists (EML) (2017) and National List of Essential Medicines (2015). Nutritional supplements were the most commonly prescribed FDCs (66.53%). While evaluating the prescribed FDCs, 66.31% were irrational FDCs while 33.69% were considered as rational.
Conclusion: Our study on FDCs have emphasized upon the fact that it is of utmost necessity both on the part of health care professionals as well as patients to follow proper prescription writing format, adhere to Essential List of Medicines, prescribe proper dosages of FDCs and prescribing generic names as far as practicable.
DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN OF FIXED DOSE COMBINATIONS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE IN A TERTIARY MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN ASSAM
Abstract: The synthetic and herbal drugs are commonly used by the patients in chronic diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the possible drug- drug interactions between the methanolic extract of Momordica dioica seeds and Metformin. Male Wistar rats weighing about 180-250 gms were selected for the study. The type II diabetes was induced in animals by a single intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg body weight). The animals were divided into 8 groups of 6 rats each (n=6). Metformin was administered orally as – 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, and metformin in combination with herbal extracts were administered in same doses. The effect of combination of both drugs on the pharmacokinetic parameters was studied in experimental animals after the treatment for a period of 21 days. The pharmacodynamic effect of combination of both the drugs was studied on the serum glucose levels of diabetic rats after multiple dosing. It is evident from the study that the serum glucose levels with metformin in the dose of 40 mg/kg along with the herbal extract was significantly decreased (*p<0.05). The bioavailability in treated groups was also analyzed and was found to be significant increase in the bioavailability of metformin (*p<0.05).The results proved that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between the Metformin and Momordica dioica extract are significant. The study concludes that the dose of metformin, can be reduced in combination with herbal drug, to minimize the adverse effects in long term use in diabetes. The study undertaken has clinical significance of such drug combinations in therapy.
Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Citrullus Colocynthis roots: A promising herb to treat Type-2 Diabetes.
Abstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterised by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Diabetes also leads to the development of oxidative stress in the body by generating free radicals. Findings also indicate that it is associated with atherosclerosis and coronary hear disease. The use of herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has gained importance through out the world. Citrullus colocynthis which is commonly known as bitter apple belonging to the family cucurbitaecea is mainly native of Asia and Europe. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti hyperglycemic, anti hyperlipidemic and anti-oxidant efficacy of aqeous and ethanolic root extracts of C.colocynthis. Diabetes was induced by giving STZ (35mg/kg) intraperitoneally, rats which showed >250mg/100ml of blood were selected for the study. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. colocynthis were prepared and administered at a dose of 100,200,300 mg/kg oraly for a period of 15 days. Metformin was taken as a standard drug at a dose 50mg/kg orally. The extract showed controlled intestinal absorbtion of monosaccharides by inhibiting Alpha – amylase enzyme and antidiabetic activity by lowering blood glucose levels in-vivo significantly (p<0.001). The extracts showed effective anti-oxidant activities by scavenging the free radicals like SOD, Catalse and LPO. It also lowered plasma CH, TG’s, LDL and VLDL levels significantly as compared to controlled group. Thus C. colocynthis root extracts has been proved to be a promising herb in type II diabetes and its complications.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GASTRIC ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF THE
LEAF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII AND MORINGA OLEIFERA IN
Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the gastric anti-ulcer activity of the aqueous extracts of Murraya
koenigii (AEMK) and Moringa oleifera ( AEMO) in wistar rats
MATERIAL AND METHOD: Study animals were divided into 2 groups, and gastric ulcers
were induced using pyloric ligation and cold restraint stress models. Two doses of AEMK and
AEMO were used (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg per orally), in each model. Ranitidine 20 mg/kg
per oral (R20) was used as a standard. Ulcer index, free acidity, total acidity, volume of gastric
juice and pH were studied and analyzed.
RESULTS: The mean ulcer index in AEMK 400 mg/kg (p=0.059) and AEMO 400 mg/kg
(p=0.231) treated groups was comparable with R20. The mean gastric juice volume was
significantly lower in the R20, AEMK400 and AEMO400 groups than disease control (DC)
group. The mean pH in R20, AEMK200, AEMK400, AEMO200 and AEMO400 groups was
significantly higher than the DC group. The mean free acidity in R20, AEMK200, AEMK400,
AEMO200 and AEMO400 groups was significantly lower than the DC group. The mean total
acidity in R20, AEMK200, AEMK400, AEMO200 and AEMO400 groups was significantly
lower than the DC group.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides scientific evidence in support of gastric ulcer
protective activities of AEMK and AEMO. Thus both plants can be suitable natural sources in
treating gastric ulcers.